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Introduction

This page contains more robust explanations of Basic Wireless Settings than the built in help provides. It was originally authored by Stephen Suley in this thread.

Wireless Physical Interface

Available Interfaces: ath0, ath1, wl0, wl1 (Varies by router)


Atheros: If you have a dual band router ath1 will be displayed below ath0 with most of the same available settings. Ath0 is the 2.4GHz radio and ath1 is the 5GHz radio. If you create a VAP for 2.4GHz or 5GHz radio the VAPs will be labeled ath0.1 and ath1.1 respectively. Refer to this thread for some info about VAPs with Atheros.

Broadcom: If you have a dual band router wl1 will be displayed below wl0 with most of the same available settings. If you create a VAP for wl0 or wl1 radio the VAPs will be labeled wl0.1 and wl1.1 respectively.

Control Channel

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Channel Width

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Network Configuration

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Sensitivity Range (ACK Timing)

Default Value: 2000 meters

The help file says...

  • Adjusts the ack timing in Atheros typical way based on the maximum distance in meters .A value of 0 disables ack timing completely for broadcom firmwares. On Atheros based firmwares a value of 0 will turn into auto ack timing mode

How it works:

  1. AP sends a message: Everybody wait X time for a response
  2. Client receives
  3. Client sends a response to the AP called and ACK - Acknowledges the command waiting for X time.
  4. AP sees the ACK
  5. Other Clients and AP are free to send

-Ack timing adjustment is used for distance links when the time needed to tramit is greater then than the amount of time the sender waits before retrying to transmit the same packet again.

-You want to set the ack timing to 2x the distance between bridged routers measured in meters.

-If the ACK timing is too high it will not affect the throughput that much. If the ACK time is too low it can drop your throughput to the point of being unusable and can even make the system not connect.

-Recommended setting is to 0 for a household network. Which for linksys users means dd-wrt doesn't use ACK timing at all.

-Maximum theororetical ACK timeouts (not sure on thouroughness) 802.11a : 409us ~ 61km 802.11b : 744us ~ 111km 802.11g : 372us ~ 55km

Wireless Channel

Default values are Channel Selection is 6, and channel width is 20MHz.

The help file says...

  • Select the appropriate channel from the list provided to correspond with your network settings (in North America between channel 1 and 11, in Europe 1 and 13, in Japan all 14 channels). All devices in your wireless network must use the same channel in order to function correctly. Try to avoid conflicts with other wireless networks by choosing a channel where the upper and lower three channels are not in use.

How it works:

IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards that are published for the purposes of carrying out wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. They are implemented by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee ( aka "IEEE 802").

2.4GHz Channels

2.4GHz band in the 802.11 standard uses radio frequencies in the range of 2.412-2.484 GHz. 802.11 splits up the frequencies within the band into 14 radio channels, numbered 1-14. These are the 14 channels designated in the 2.4 GHz range spaced 5 MHz apart (with the exception of a 12 MHz spacing before Channel 14). The frequency range of a channel partially overlaps with the next one, so not all the channels are therefore independent. By default on a 2.4GHz band radio DD-WRT routers, channels 1, 6 and 11 have no overlap with each other; those three channels are known in the wireless community as the "standard" for wireless channel independence within the 2.4GHz band.

In North America this 2.4GHz "band" is implemented by dividing the 2.4GHz band into 13 channels each with a width of 22 MHz but also spaced only 5 MHz apart, with channel 1 centred on 2412 MHz and 13 on 2472, to which Japan adds a 14th channel 12 MHz above channel 13.

5GHz Channels

5GHz band in the 802.11 standard uses radio frequencies in the range of 4.980 GHz to 5.825 GHz. 802.11 splits up the frequencies within the band into 42 wireless radio channels, numbered 7 to 196. These are the 42 channels designated in the 5 GHz range and they are spaced 5 MHz apart. The frequency range of a channel partially overlaps with the next one, so not all the channels are therefore independent but unlike the 2.4GHz band the 5GHz band offers many more non overlapping channels.

In North America this 5GHz "band" is implemented by dividing the 5GHz band into 24 channels (36 to 165) each with a width of 22 MHz but also spaced only 5 MHz apart, with channel 36 centred on 5.180 GHz and 165 on 5.825 GHz.

NOTE - The specifics of the frequency range and how channels are allocated is regulated by each country. Usually constrained in part by how each country allocates radio spectrum to various services. For example, in the 2.4Ghz band Japan has implemented 1 to 14 wireless channels, Europe #1-#13 and the FCC in the US decided with 1 to 11 wireless channels all within the same band. DD-WRT allows the use of all channels; this doesn't mean your client wireless adapter can support channels outside of its licensed region.

How it works in DD-WRT: To configure your radio channels in the WebGUI you browse to the "Basic Settings" under the "Wireless" page on your DD-WRT router.

If you have dual band router (ie. Two Radios inside the router) you will see two sections for configurations listed in this page with the headings as "wl0" for the 2.4GHz radio and "wl1" for the 5GHz radio.

DD-WRT has channel configuration settings that must be configured;

Wireless mode, this determines if the router will be used as an Access Point, Repeater, Client or in an Ad-hoc configuration mode. Channel options are only avalaible to a router running in AP or Ad-Hoc wireless mode.

Wireless Network mode, this setting determines what wireless protocols will be offered to the wireless clients that try to connect to the router. Depending on the wireless network mode your radio is configured for DD-WRT will have additional channel options for you to configure if you choose.

Channel Width

A feature of DD-WRT is the Channel Width value(10Mhz, 20MHz or 40MHz). It allows a user to decide if DD-WRT will force the use of narrow, standard or wide channel use of the 2.4GHz band.

10Mhz - Narrow channel - (more non overlapping channels but less bandwidth)

20Mhz - Default DD-WRT configuration for the 2.4GHz band.

40Mhz - Wide channel - (less non overlapping channels but more bandwidth)

-If 40MHz is selected as the channel width the wireless channel will be bonded with another ajacent channel to provide more preformance. The channel the router uses to bond to the orgional wireless channel selection is known as the "wide channel". The orgional wireless channel selection bonds with either a channel above or below itself. DD-WRT uses the "Wide Channel" value to give the admin the option to select the upper or lower channel in refence to the main channel selection.

For an example of the channel options lets exmine DD-WRT running on "Linksys WRT610n" hardware which happens to be a 802.11n Dual-Band Router.

wl0 radio ( 2.4GHz band )

802.11b/g and n and mixed modes of all three are offered by DD-WRT running on top of 802.11n hardware, no matter which mode is selected the 2.4GHz band radio can only use radio frequencies in the range of 2412-2484 MHz (channels 1 to 14);

Wireless Mode: AP Wireless Network Mode: B-Only, G-Only and BG-Mixed

DD-WRT channel options when configured in the wireless modes above:

1) - Channel Selection Channel selections offered by DD-WRT are 1 to 14 or the DD-WRT "Auto" channel selection feature.

Wireless Mode: AP Wireless Network Mode: N-Only and Mixed

DD-WRT channel options when configured in the wireless modes above:

1) - Wireless Channel Selection Channel selections offered by DD-WRT are 1 to 14 or the DD-WRT "Auto" channel selection feature.

2) - Wireless Channel Width "Auto" can be selected as well to use the DD-WRT of automatic selection of wireless channel width. As a note if "Auto" is selected for the wireless channel width the wireless channel selection will be reset to use the "Auto" feature when you click save.

3) - Wide Channel selection. DD-WRT uses the "Wide Channel" value to give the admin the option to select the upper or lower channel in refence to the main wireless channel selection.

NOTE - If 40MHz is selected as the channel width value in mixed mode wireless network configuration the use of CTS protection mode must enabled. This feature provides a mechonism for 802.11g clients to be able to connect and operate correctly on the same 2.4GHz radio.

wl1 radio ( 5GHz band )

802.11a, n and mixed modes of both are offered by DD-WRT running on top of 802.11n hardware , no matter which mode is selected the 5GHz band radio can only use radio frequencies in the range of 5.170GHz to 6.080GHz (channels 34 - 216).

Wireless Mode: AP Wireless Network Mode: A-Only

DD-WRT channel options when configured in the wireless modes above:

1) - Channel Selection Channel selections offered by DD-WRT are 34 to 216 or the DD-WRT "Auto" wireless channel selection feature.

Wireless Mode: AP Wireless Network Mode: N-Only and NA-Only

DD-WRT channel options when configured in the wireless modes above:

1) - Wireless Channel Selection Channel selections offered by DD-WRT are 34 to 216 or the DD-WRT "Auto" wireless channel selection feature.

2) - Wireless Channel Width "Auto" can be selected as well to use the DD-WRT of automatic selection of wireless channel width. As a note if "Auto" is selected for the wireless channel width the wireless channel selection will be reset to use the "Auto" feature when you click save.

3) - Wide Channel selection. DD-WRT uses the "Wide Channel" value to give the admin the option to select the upper or lower channel in refence to the main wireless channel selection.

NOTE - If 40MHz is selected as the channel width value in mixed mode wireless network configuration the use of CTS protection mode must enabled. This feature provides a mechonism for 802.11a clients to be able to connect and operate correctly on the same 5GHz radio.

-If you want to introduce channel bonding in your wireless enviroment you should also start with "CTS Protection" set to Auto as well.

Wireless Mode

Atheros available Settings: AP, Client, Client Bridge, Adhoc, WDS Station, WDS AP
Broadcom available Settings: AP, Client, Client Bridge, Adhoc, Repester, Repeater Bridge
Default Setting AP
Recommended Setting: Depends on what exactly your trying to do with the device.

The help file says...

  • The wireless part of your router can run in different modes:
  • AP mode – This is the default mode, also called Infrastructure mode. Your router acts as an central connection point, which wireless clients can connect to.
  • Client mode – The radio interface is used to connect the internet-facing side of the router (i.e., the WAN) as a client to a remote access point. NAT or routing are performed between WAN and LAN, like in "normal" gateway or router mode. Use this mode, e.g., if your internet connection is provided by a remote access point, and you want to connect a subnet of your own to it.
  • Client Bridged mode – The radio interface is used to connect the LAN side of the router to a remote access point. The LAN and the remote AP will be in the same subnet (This is called a "bridge" between two network segments). The WAN side of the router is unused and can be disabled. Use this mode, e.g., to make the router act as a "WLAN adapter" for a device connected to one of its LAN Ethernet ports.
  • Ad-Hoc mode – This is for peer to peer wireless connections. Clients running in Ad-Hoc mode can connect to each other as required without involving central access points.


How it works:
Determines how the specific wireless interface of the router is to behave. If you want to run a normal access point which most do, AP would be your choice. Client and Client Bridge with Virtual Interfaces is the Atheros equivalent Broadcom's Repeater and Repeater Bridge settings.


Wireless Network Mode

Available Settings: Varies by device. Some of the common ones are...

  • Disabled
  • Mixed
  • B-Only
  • G-Only
  • BG-Mixed
  • NG-Mixed
  • A-Only
  • N-Only
  • N-Only (2.4 GHz)
  • N-Only (5 GHz)
  • NA-Only
  • NA-Mixed

Default Setting: Mixed
Recommended Setting: Depends on what exactly your trying to do with the device.

The help file says...

  • If you wish to exclude Wireless-G clients, choose B-Only mode. If you would like to disable wireless access, choose Disable.

Note : when changing wireless mode, some advanced parameters are susceptible to be modified ("Afterburner", "Basic Rate" or "Frame Burst").

How it works:

In Mixed mode, dd-wrt routers are able to offer various wifi network types (B, G and N) at the same time from a single 2.4GHz radio. 802.11n transmission is always embedded in an 802.11a, for 5GHz radios, or 802.11g for 2.4GHz radio transmissions. This is called Mixed Mode Format protection (also known as L-SIG TXOP Protection).

See also:


Wireless Network Name (SSID)

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Wireless SSID Broadcast

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:


Virtual Interfaces

AP Isolation

See AP Isolation in Advance Wireless Settings.

Network Configuration

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Wireless Network Name (SSID)

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

Wireless SSID Broadcast

Fixme This section is in need of cleanup!

The help file says...

How it works:

References

Advanced Wireless Settings Reference Guide - http://www.dd-wrt.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=51039

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